EXW {+ the named place}
Ex Works

Ex means from. Works means factory, mill or warehouse, which is the seller’s premises. EXW applies to goods available only at the seller’s premises. Buyer is responsible for loading the goods on truck or container at the seller’s premises, and for the subsequent costs and risks. In practice, it is not uncommon that the seller loads the goods on truck or container at the seller’s premises without charging loading fee.The term EXW is commonly used between the manufacturer (seller) and export-trader (buyer), and the export-trader resells on other trade terms to the foreign buyers. Some manufacturers may use the term Ex Factory, which means the same as Ex Works.

FCA {+ the named point of departure}
Free Carrier

The delivery of goods on truck, rail car or container at the specified point (depot) of departure, which is usually the seller’s premises, or a named railroad station or a named cargo terminal or into the custody of the carrier, at seller’s expense. The point (depot) at origin may or may not be a customs clearance center. Buyer is responsible for the main carriage/freight, cargo insurance and other costs and risks. In the air shipment, technically speaking, goods placed in the custody of an air carrier is considered as delivery on board the plane. In practice, many importers and exporters still use the term FOB in the air shipment. The term FCA is also used in the RO/RO (roll on/roll off) services. Some manufacturers may use the former terms FOT (Free On Truck) and FOR (Free On Rail) in selling to export-traders.

FAS {+ the named port of origin}
Free Alongside Ship

Goods are placed in the dock shed or at the side of the ship, on the dock or lighter, within reach of its loading equipment so that they can be loaded aboard the ship, at seller’s expense. Buyer is responsible for the loading fee, main carriage/freight, cargo insurance, and other costs and risks. The FAS term is popular in the break-bulk shipments and with the importing countries using their own vessels.

FOB {+ the named port of origin}
Free On Board
The delivery of goods on board the vessel at the named port of origin (loading), at seller’s expense. Buyer is responsible for the main carriage/freight, cargo insurance and other costs and risks. Under the rules of the INCOTERMS 1990, the term FOB is used for ocean freight only. However, in practice, many importers and exporters still use the term FOB in the air freight. FOB Origin means the buyer is responsible for the freight and other costs and risks. FOB Destination means the seller is responsible for the freight and other costs and risks until the goods are delivered to the buyer’s premises, which may include the import customs clearance and payment of import customs duties and taxes at the buyer’s country, depending on the agreement between the buyer and seller.In international trade, avoid using the shipping terms FOB Origin and FOB Destination, which are not part of the INCOTERMS (International Commercial Terms).